Tuesday, August 23, 2011

The structure of IP Addressing / Address

In a computer network known as a name, called protocols, which set a node to communicate with other nodes. Protocol to be a translator between computers in a network. Nationally standardized protocol used is known as TCP / IP. With the TCP / IP is a variety of computer hardware and operating systems can communicate.
Internet Protocol is the holding of the TCP / IP, all the data in the upper layer were processed in this section. IP version of the most widely used today is IP version 4.
Development of the internet very rapidly at this time causes reduced allocation of IP addresses, especially IP legal. This dikarenaan model addressing in IPv4 (IP version 4) only 32 bits long. To address this problem then it led to the latest version of the IETF IP is IPv6 (IP version 6). In IPv6, the address length of 128 bits, while IPv4 only 32 bits. so that IPv6 can provide as many as 2 ^ 128 addresses [2 to the power 128] or 3x10 ^ 38 addresses, while IPv4 addresses are only able to provide as many as 2 ^ 32 or 4.5 X10 ^ 10 addresses.

The difference between IPv4 with IPv6 that I try searching on the Internet, among others, lies in:
1.        In addressing structure
IPv4 uses 32-bit addressing which each bit separated by a dot notation.
IPv4 addressing notation is as follows:
XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX.XXXXXXXX where each symbol X is replaced with a combination of bits 0 and 1.
10000010.11001000.01000000.00000001 (in binary numbers) are converted to decimal form into 4 130 200 127 254
IPv6 address notation is as follows:
X: X: X: X: X: X: X: X
If the binary form is written as follows:
Converted to a combination of four hexadecimal numbers separated by a colon symbol [:]. for the example above can be written as follows:
FE78: 2344: BE43: BCDA: 4145:0:0:3 A
Another example, if there is address 0 i:
8088:0:0:0:0:0:4508:4545 ---> 8088:: 4508:4545
·           Addressing system
In IPv4 addressing modes are divided into five classes;
1.    Class A : range 1-126
2.    Class B : range 128-191
3.    Class C : range 192-223
4.    Class D : range 224-247
5.    Class E : range 248-255
Of the five classes above address, type alamata often using that address is a class A, B, C class D addresses are typically used for multicasting and class E for Experimental. In terms well known IPv4 subnet mask is 32 bit binary number that is used to distinguish the network ID and host ID, showing the location of a host in one network or another network.
# IPv6
On IPv6 is not known the term classes. IPv6 provides 3 types pengalamatanyaitu: Unicast, Anycast and Multicast. Unicast address is the address that points to an address or a host interface, used to communicate one on one. In unicast address is divided into 3 types again that is: local link address, site address local and global addresses.
Anycast address is the address that shows some of the interface (usually different nodes). Packets sent to this address will be delivered to one address of the interface closest to the router. anycast addresses do not have a specific allocation, because if some nodes / interfaces are given the same prefix, then the address is an anycast address.
Multicast address is the address that shows some of the interface (usually to different nodes). Packets sent to this address will be delivered to all interfaces are shown by this address. Multicast address is designed to replace IPv4 broadcast address at which consume lots of bandwidth

2. Advantages of IPv6
Excess or solution contained in the design of IPv6 is one of the triggers accelerated implementation. Advantages of IPv6 are as follows:
1.      IPv6 is the solution to the limitations of IPv4 addresses (32 bits). IPv6 with 128 bit addressing which allows for more, allowing the IP's organizations a variety of devices (PDAs, mobile phones, home appliances, automotive supplies).
2.      Safety and quality of service (QoS) which has been integrated.
3.      Autokonfigurasi design and structure berhirarki IPv6 enables support for the mobile communication without disrupting the end-to-end.
4.      IPv6 enables peer-to-peer without going through the NAT, thus facilitating the process of collaboration / communication end-to-end: human to human, machine to machine, human to machine and vice versa.

3. Subnet Calculation of Network Address as follows:
 class C a.
Subnet Mask: / 28 = 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000 = 255 255 255 240 Calculating Subnet:
Number of Subnet: 24 = 16 Subnet
Number of Hosts per Subnet: 24 - 2 = 14 hosts
Block Subnet: 256-240 = 16, the next block: 16 +16 = 32, 32 +16 = 48, 48 +16 = 64, 64 +16 =
80, 80 +16 = 96, 96 +16 = 112, 112 + 16 = 128, 128 +16 = 144, 144 +16 = 160, 160 +16 = 176,
176 +16 = 192, 192 +16 = 208, 208 +16 = 224, 224 +16 = 240
So the valid subnets are: 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176, 192, 208, 224

Subnet through
First Host through
Last Host to
Broadcast to

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